The Citizens, held for just the second time this season in their last outing before the international break, pulled away from their opponents with quickfire goals early in the second half.
Having taken the lead through Sergio Aguero's 17th-minute strike, maintaining his impressive form in this fixture, Bernardo Silva doubled his side's tally in controversial circumstances and Fernandinho added a third moments later.
Further goals followed from Riyad Mahrez and Leroy Sane late on as City, who had further reason to celebrate thanks to Kevin De Bruyne's return to action on the hour following more than two months out, moved two points clear at the top of the table with this seventh victory in nine games.
Seeking a first away league win in this fixture since 1963, Burnley made a positive start and came close to opening the scoring through a Sam Vokes header over the bar inside the first three minutes.
Man City were having plenty of joy down the flanks thanks to the positioning of Benjamin Mendy and Mahrez, with the latter sending in a delightful delivery for Aguero.
The Argentina international guided his effort wide of the target from 15 yards, while the same combination led to Aguero being thwarted by Hart soon after, this time from even closer range.
Aguero's breakthrough moment would arrive less than a quarter of the way into the match, though, as he found himself well positioned to tuck the ball out of Joe Hart's reach following some good interplay between David Silva and Sane.
Seven goals in seven games against the Clarets should have been eight in seven before the interval, but he sent the ball over an unguarded net from a tight angle after Hart - back at the Etihad Stadium for the first time as an opposition player - had produced another fine save to keep out Silva's glanced header.
Silva also flicked the ball onto the roof of the net from an earlier effort as City took control of the game, though they were given a warning by Burnley when Jeff Hendrick worked some space and shot into John Stones in front of goal.
Any hope the visitors had of nicking a point, just like they did in February's fixture, soon evaporated as City put the game out of reach within 10 minutes of the second half.
City's second goal rattled Burnley's players, who felt that the ball was out of play when David Silva pulled it back for namesake Bernardo to convert past Hart.
The Citizens, though, will see it as justice being done as Sane appeared to be brought to the ground by Jack Cork in the immediate build-up to that killer second goal.
Less than two minutes later it was 3-0 thanks to Fernandinho's thumping strike into the top corner after a corner was half-cleared into his path on the edge of the area.
Pep Guardiola was given the luxury of bringing on De Bruyne for the remaining 30 minutes, and his first involvement was to set Mahrez free on goal.
Hart kept out that shot down low and then thwarted Aguero for a second time with a save down the middle - the Argentine striker's last involvement in the match before being replaced by Gabriel Jesus.
Jesus sent a header into the hands of Hart after being spotted by fellow sub Phil Foden, while Vokes guided a header over the cross from a corner at the other end.
A fourth goal would arrive for the home side late on, however, and it was a fourth goal in six games for Mahrez as he cut onto his left and curled the ball out of Hart's reach, before Sane rounded off the scoring when diverting Mendy's first-time cross into the back of the net in the final minute of the one-sided contest.
MANCHESTER CITY (4-3-3): Ederson; Laporte, Kompany, Stones, Mendy; D.Silva (Foden 75'), Fernandinho, Bernardo (De Bruyne 58'); Mahrez, Aguero (Jesus 66'), Sane
BURNLEY (4-5-1): Hart; Lowton, Tarkowski, Mee, Taylor; Gudmundsson, Cork, Defour (Barnes 75'), Hendrick, Lennon (Westwood 69'); Vokes (Wood 69')