Schurrle was the one making things happen for Fulham, but Sampdoria were having their moments in the final third, and Gianluca Caprari just missed the target with a curling effort late in the first period.
Colley had another super chance for Sampdoria early in the second period, and the defender brought a smart save from Fabricio between the Fulham sticks.
Having secured a permanent return to Fulham earlier this week, Aleksandar Mitrovic made his debut for the Cottagers off the bench just past the hour mark.
Marlon Fossey came close to making the breakthrough in the 67th minute when he struck one from distance, but the defender's effort deflected just wide of the post.
It was Sampdoria that took the lead in the 79th minute, and the goal came from Uruguay international Ramirez, who curled a wonderful effort into the back of the net.
Fulham's final pre-season match is against Celta Vigo this weekend before opening their 2018-19 Premier League campaign at home to Crystal Palace on August 11.
FULHAM: Fabricio, Fossey (R Sessegnon 72'), Odoi, De la Torre (Kamara 72'), S Sessegnon (Christie 72'), Cairney (Johansen 46'), Cisse, Fonte (Mitrovic 61'), Le Marchand (Ream 61'), Schurrle (Kebano 61'), McDonald (Seri 61')
SAMPDORIA: Audero (Belec 73'), Andersen (Rolano 88'), Barreto (Linetty 64'), Caprari (Defrel 64'), Colley (Ferrari 64'), Jankto (Verre 79'), Kownacki (Ramirez 79'), Murru (Bereszynski 73'), Praet, Quagliarella, Sala (Tavares 73')