The match failed to live up to Wednesday's Champions League classic, but Foden's fifth-minute header proved to be the difference as City reopened a one-point advantage at the top of the standings.
Spurs had their moments as they produced another strong performance, but the North London outfit remain in third place ahead of the weekend's remaining games.
The seven-goal thriller between the clubs earlier this week featured four strikes in the opening 11 minutes, and Spurs quickly set about trying to take an early lead.
However, City went straight up the other end to take the lead. A floated pass towards the back post was headed across the six-yard box by Sergio Aguero, and Foden was there to convert from close range for his first Premier League goal.
Spurs continued to offer a threat at the other end with Christian Eriksen seeing a shot blocked by Ederson after advancing into the area, while Son took too much time to get a strike on goal when breaking behind the City backline.
However, Spurs were struggling to cope with City's high pressing at the other end of the pitch, and Foden and Bernardo Silva should have perhaps done better with shots which only went straight at Paulo Gazzaniga from inside the area.
There were signs that City were beginning to coast towards the half-time whistle, but the home team were dealt a blow before the break when Kevin De Bruyne was forced to limp off after sustaining what Pep Guardiola revealed to be a hamstring injury.
Spurs rallied towards the end of the first half with Son again being denied by Ederson after getting the better of Stones and Aymeric Laporte, but Mauricio Pochettino would have been satisfied to reach the break facing just the one-goal deficit.
City wasted no time in going in search of a second after the restart, and Spurs were required to make a number of timely blocks to prevent shots getting through to Gazzaniga.
Foden could have also added a second of the afternoon rather than miscuing a first-time effort wide from 12 yards, but Guardiola would have been content with how his team were nullifying Spurs' threat at the other end of the pitch.
Spurs had an appeal for a penalty when Dele Alli's flick hit the arm of Kyle Walker, but the distance between the two players probably saved the right-back from gifting his former club a chance to net an equaliser.
City continued to pose a threat as the game entered the final quarter, and Sterling somehow failed to convert a cross from Leroy Sane as Gazzaniga stuck out a leg to prevent the ball from finding the bottom corner.
Spurs' best opportunity of finding an equaliser fell to Lucas Moura shortly afterwards, but Ederson again came to the rescue when coming out to make another block.
Pochettino would have hoped that the opening would have acted as the catalyst for a late assault on the City goal, but Spurs failed to pose a sustained threat during the closing stages.
City also failed to create chances at the other end, but it mattered little as Guardiola witnessed his team take another step towards successfully defending the title which they won last May.
MANCHESTER CITY (4-3-3): Ederson; Walker, Stones, Laporte, Zinchenko; De Bruyne (Fernandinho 38'), Gundogan, Foden (D.Silva 85'); B.Silva, Aguero (Sane 66'), Sterling
TOTTENHAM HOTSPUR (5-3-2): Gazzaniga; Foyth, Alderweireld (Llorente 78'), Sanchez, Vertonghen, Davies; Eriksen, Dier (Wanyama 61'), Alli (Rose 69'); Son, Moura
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