The Germany international has missed all three Barca games since club football returned after the international break with the injury.
That issue also kept Ter Stegen out of the Germany squad for November's fixtures, where Die Mannschaft lost both friendlies to Turkey and Austria.
In an announcement on their club website, Barcelona have revealed that Ter Stegen will have surgery, but they remained tight-lipped on the possible timeframe of his absence.
The statement further read that another update will be released after Ter Stegen's procedure has taken place.
ESPN claims that the 31-year-old will be out until the new year, and may face a race to be fit for the Champions League knockout stages, which come around in February.
Ter Stegen said on an Instagram post: "The break obviously annoys me. It is the right and safe decision in order to come back in the best conditions for my Club [Barcelona] and the National Team [Germany]."
With a home European Championships around the corner, Ter Stegen will also hope to return so that he can retain the number one jersey for Germany.
Manuel Neuer's leg break, which has kept him out for much of 2023, means that Ter Stegen has been a regular in goal for next summer's hosts, but the recent return of the Bayern Munich keeper could open up a tense battle between the two.
The club's vice-captain had been present in all opening 17 games for Barca this season, but Inaki Pena has been forced to deputise in his absence.
After recently handing Pena a new contract until 2026, Barca appear content to show faith in the inexperienced number two, who has stepped in for all three games since the break.
Barca have an important clash with local rivals Girona at the weekend, as they will enter the fixture four points behind La Liga's surprise package this season.