The former Whites loanee started alongside Rob Holding in the heart of defence on Tuesday but went down with barely 10 minutes gone in the second period.
White headed straight down the tunnel following the substitution, but the centre-back's issue did not appear to be too serious at first glance, and Arteta has revealed that he was suffering from illness.
Arteta told reporters: "There's a bug going around. Ben had it for the last day or two. He wasn't feeling great so we decided to take him off."
Arsenal's next Premier League contest sees them face Leicester City in Saturday's early kickoff, but White's replacement Chambers broke the deadlock against Leeds with his first touch after coming onto the field.